2. What do we Know About Water?

We do know the basic layout of the water molecule.

The single water molecule has been extensively studied. It consists of:

  • A single oxygen molecule with a negative electrical charge charge of -2.
  • Two hydrogen molecules with a positive charge of +1 each.
  • This gives us an evenly balanced molecule: a dipole.

Open question:

How water molecules interact in a body of water is still up for debate, and many theories fail the litmus test* as they do not answer all questions or account for “anomalies.”

It could be said that for a theory to be valid, it can not violate the basic laws of physics or nature.

  • A partially correct or incorrect theory will have exceptions to the rule.
  • A correct theory has no exceptions to the rule.

Interaction of H2O molecules

We start to get workable answers the moment we recognize the fact that water is capable of charge separation.

  • Electrons and protons are the elementary units of charge.
  • They attract one another because one is positive and the other is negative.
  • Electrons and protons play central roles in water’s behavior.

Groups of water molecules are capable of charge separation, and can and do form distinctly charged regions.

Exclusion Zone Demo

Body of Water. Left to right: Surface, Negative Region, Positive Region. Image Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD – Professor of Bioengineering university of Washington

Early scientific proof that water is capable of separating charges came from Lord Kelvin with his invention of the Kelvin Water Dropper in 1867.

Of note is that the Kelvin Water Dropper achieved charge separation from a single source of water.

Thousands of volts can be generated by these drops of water.

How does charge separate in water?

Professor Gerald H. Pollack, of Washington University, made a breakthrough by isolating that negative charge builds at the location where water comes into contact with another material or element.

How large this zone of negatively charged water is depends on the material it is in contact with.

The size of this negatively charged zone of water depends on several factors. The more hydrophilic (water-loving) the material, the larger the negatively charged zone.

This negatively charged zone of water has been named “exclusion zone” water.

Exclusion Zone Layer

Left to right: Gel surface, water zone free from contamination (exclusion zone), water contaminated with microspheres. Photo Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

This image shows an enlargement of gel in a dish of water.

The water has been contaminated with microspheres to show any change of state in the water.

As can be seen in the image, the microspheres have been pushed away from the surface, leaving an area free of microspheres.

Video link to Washington university website

Another example of exclusion zone generating around Nafion (an extremely hydrophilic material):

Nafion and Exclusion Zone

Exclusion zone 100 µm. Photo Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

The size of the exclusion zone in this image is roughly 100 µm.

This is the equivalent of millions of layers of water molecules.

You can see that this is a significant portion of water that behaves differently than the water around it.

How do we know the exclusion zone is negatively charged?

A simple test of placing an electrode in the exclusion zone water, and another electrode in the main body of water beyond the exclusion zone, produces evidence of charge potential.

Exclusion zone water holds negative charge.



Current Flow

Charge separation confirmed by current flow

PH Dye

pH-sensitive dye added to sample. The thick red stripe is Nafion. The thin white layer, to the left, has dye excluded.

Another experiment with pH sensitive dye shows the same result.

Adding a pH sensitive dye to the water confirms the negative charge of the exclusion zone.

The strongest positive zone is right next to the exclusion zone. Note that positive charge in water diminishes the further away you get from the exclusion zone.

The exclusion zone forms next to the surface of objects and materials in water.

What range of materials are excluded from the exclusion zone?

There is a huge range of excluded particles.

Microspheres of all kinds and sizes were excluded, ranging in size from 10 μm down to 0.1 μm: even red blood cells, several strains of bacteria, and ordinary dirt particles.

The protein albumin was excluded, as were various dyes with molecular weights as low as 100 daltons — only a little larger than common salt molecules.

The span between the largest to the smallest of the excluded substances amounted to a thousand billion times.

Has this discovery of the exclusion zone been confirmed?

Exclusion Zone net to Gel BeadZinc

Microspheres in water beyond exclusion zone. Note how the microspheres have moved beyond the exclusion zone surrounding the gel bead. Photo Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

Yes, the following scientists have looked at these findings and validated them:

  • Felix Blyakhman (Ural State University)
  • Wei-Chun Chin (U. Cal. Merced)
  • Toshio Hirai (Shinshu University)
  • Mark BanaszakHoll (Univ. of Michigan)
  • Tom Lowell (Vermont Photonics)
  • Diedrich Schmidt (Tsukuba)
  • Gerhard Artmann (Aachen)
  • David Maughan (U. Vermont)
  • MiklosKellermayer (Budapest)
  • FettahKosar (Harvard)
  • Jacques Huyghe (Eindhoven)
  • NikolayBunkin (Moscow)

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