5. Biological Implications

Cell with EZ Water

Cells are full of Exclusion Zone water (negative charge).

The exclusion zone grows around organic matter. Most cell water is exclusion zone water. Cells are full of EZ water (negative charge). The cell has negative electrical potential. A sick cell has less negative potential.

Other supporting information:

“In all cases, the rate and extent of ion transport across membranes is influenced not only by the ion concentrations on the two sides of the membrane but also by the voltage (i.e., the electric potential) that exists across the membrane.” – Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, et al. Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman; 2000. Section 15.4, Intracellular Ion Environment and Membrane Electric Potential. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21627/

Sick Cell

Sick cell, less exclusion zone water?

Molecular Cell Biology, 4th edition

Molecular Cell Biology,
4th edition

Relative energy potential of cell compared to its size

“The magnitude of this electric potential is ≈70 mill-volts (mV) with the inside of the cell always negative with respect to the outside. This value does not seem like much until we realize that the plasma membrane is only about 3.5 nm thick. Thus the voltage gradient across the plasma membrane is 0.07 V per 3.5 × 10−7 cm, or 200,000 volts per centimeter! To appreciate what this means, consider that high-voltage transmission lines for electricity utilize gradients of about 200,000 volts per kilometer!

Does biology use radiant energy?

The heart is responsible for pumping blood through arteries and veins. When we get to capillaries, we have a dilemma. Blood cells are bigger than some capillary veins. Thus there should be a large resistance to their flow. Blood pressure generated by the heart is off by several orders of magnitude to justify regulation of flow through capillaries. Is radiant energy a factor in proper circulation?

Body Radiant Energy

Is radiant energy a factor in
proper circulation?


Blood cells squeezing through capillaries*

Blood flow influenced by exclusion zone

Blood flow is already commonly known to be affected by infrared radiation. It has been used for centuries to either promote or inhibit the flow of blood to body parts in the form of heat or cold. Heat transfers in with the infrared wavelength. The common misconception is that heat “enlarges the capillaries.” This concept falls short when one looks at the fact that a rise of a few degrees in temperature does not result in enough capillary expansion to promote blood flow. Generation of difference of potential, however, does provide a force capable of impelling blood onward.

*Image Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington 

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