3. How Does the Exclusion Zone Form?

The exclusion zone grows over time.

Solute Exclusion from Pollack Laboratory on Vimeo.

Radiant Energy

Photo Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

For work to be done or for motion to occur, energy is needed.

What form of energy drives the growth of an exclusion zone?

Radiant energy (light) builds exclusion zone.

Any light source causes it to expand.

Light provides the energy to build exclusion zone.

Visible light as well as the non-visible spectrum of light produce exclusion zone in water.

Infrared light at the 270 nm wavelength produces the largest exclusion zone.

Conversely, a lack of light will cause the water molecules in the exclusion zone to return to their neutral, chaotic state of “regular water.”

Videos of this experiment can be viewed online at:

http://faculty.washington.edu/ghp/research-themes/water-science/

Exclusion Zone Layers

Image Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

The water molecule is dipole

By itself it has a neutral charge:

Oxygen -2
Hydrogen +1

Two hydrogen molecules produce a net charge of +2, thus the water molecule is evenly balanced (dipole).

To get a negative charge, and to establish a stable zone in water capable of holding this charge, something has to change.

Professor Pollack suggests the following ordering of water molecules in hexagonal sheets, which stack in layers.

A group of water molecules interacting this way would provide a negative charge.

Exclusion Zone Layers

Image Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

A hexagonal structure of sheets of ordered water molecules is possible if a few hydrogen atoms are shared.

The construction of hexagonal rings of water molecules results in each ring having a net charge of -1.

A region of billions of water molecules so arranged would thus explain how a region of water can hold and retain negative charge.

Hexagonal Water

Entrapment of water by sub-unit c of ATP synthase. Photographed using Electron diffraction. Image Credit: McGeoch JE, McGeoch MW – J R Soc Interface (2008), Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University.

Is there other evidence of this structure?

In research by McGeoch JE, McGeoch MW, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University:

Sheets of water surrounding a protein were photographed using electron diffraction. The hexagonal arrangement of water is clearly visible.

The full study can be found at:

http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=2500151_rsif20071146f06&req=4

More evidence in support of this

Exclusion Zone Right Shift

A slight shift of stacked exclusion zone layers allows for stable bonding. Image Credit: Gerald H. Pollack, PhD -Professor of Bioengineering, University of Washington

Exclusion zone water is denser and more tightly arranged than regular water.

Possibility for stacking arises through a slight shift in position by each successive layer.Exclusion Zone Helix

This arrangement allows for helical stacking, which could be relevant to biology. The shift in stacking need not be to the left or right, it can shift any of the six directions of the hexagon.

Such a shift would allow for the helical stacking so familiar to biology.

Is there more supporting evidence of this? Keep reading.

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